TAL page templates

Description

Plone uses Zope Page Templates (ZPT). This document contains references to this template language and generally available templates, macros and views you can use to build your Plone add-on product.

Introduction

Plone uses Zope Page Templates, consisting of the three related standards: Template Attribute Language (TAL), TAL Expression Syntax (TALES), and Macro Expansion TAL (METAL).

A normal full Plone HTML page consists of:

  • the master template, defining the overall layout of the page,
  • slots, defined by the master template, and filled by the object being published,
  • Viewlet managers containing viewlets.

Templates can be associated with Python view classes (also known as "new style", circa 2008) or they can be standalone ("old style", circa 2001).

Note

The rationale for moving away from standalone page templates is that the page template code becomes easily cluttered with inline Python code. This makes templates hard to customize or override. New style templates provide better separation with view logic (Python code) and HTML generation (page template).

The MIME-Type

Basically a document file got a mime-type. This is also important for Plone Templates if you don't want to export to text/html. If you want to export to a XML File you have to change the mime-type because otherwise the browser won't recognize the file as an XML. At the moment Plone supports text/html which is the default value. And text/xml. You got 2 opportunities to change this value. If you customize a template you got an input box which called "Content-Type". The other Way is to create a file named by your template name and extend the name by .metadata.

Example:
  • my_view.pt
  • my_view.pt.metadata

Content of metadata file:

[default]
content_type = text/xml

Overriding templates

The recommended approach to customize .pt files for Plone 4 is to use a little helper called z3c.jbot.

If you need to override templates in core Plone or in an existing add-on, you can do the following:

  • Roll out your own add-on which you can use to contain your page templates on the file system.
  • Use the z3c.jbot Plone helper add-on to override existing page templates. This is provided in the sane_plone_addon_template add-in, no separate set-up needed.
  • z3c.jbot can override page templates (.pt files) for views, viewlets, old style page templates and portlets. In fact it can override any .pt file in the Plone source tree.

Overriding a template using z3c.jbot

  1. First of all, make sure that your customization add-on supports z3c.jbot. sane_plone_addon_template has a templates folder where you can drop in your new .pt files.

  2. Locate the template you need to override in Plone source tree. You can do this by searching the eggs/ folder of your Plone installation for .pt files. Usually this folder is .../buildout-cache/eggs.

    Below is an example UNIX find command to find .pt files. You can also use Windows Explorer file search or similar tools:

    $ find ~/code/buildout-cache/eggs -name "\*.pt"
    ./archetypes.kss-1.4.3-py2.4.egg/archetypes/kss/browser/edit_field_wrapper.pt
    ./archetypes.kss-1.4.3-py2.4.egg/archetypes/kss/browser/view_field_wrapper.pt
    ./archetypes.kss-1.6.0-py2.6.egg/archetypes/kss/browser/edit_field_wrapper.pt
    ./archetypes.kss-1.6.0-py2.6.egg/archetypes/kss/browser/view_field_wrapper.pt
    ...
    

    Note

    Your eggs/ folder may contain several versions of the same egg if you have re-run buildout or upgraded Plone. In this case the correct action is usually to pick the latest version.

  3. Make a copy of .pt file you are going to override.

    Rename the file to its so-called canonical name: to do this, exclude the .egg folder name from the filename, and then replace all slashes / with dot .:

    archetypes/kss/browser/edit_field_wrapper.pt
    

    to:

    archetypes.kss.browser.edit_field_wrapper.pt
    

    Drop the file in the templates folder you have registered for z3c.jbot in your add-on.

    Make your changes in the new .pt file.

    Warning

    After overriding the template for the first time (adding the file to the templates/ folder) you need to restart Plone. z3c.jbot scans new overrides only during the restart.

After the file is in place, changes to the file are instantly picked up: the template code is re-read on every HTTP request — just hit enter in your browser location bar. (Hitting enter in the location bar is quicker than hitting Refresh, which also reloads CSS and JS files.)

If you want to override an already overridden template, read here: <http://stackoverflow.com/questions/16209392/how-can-i-override-an-already-overriden-template-by-jbot>

More info:

Main template

The master page template in Plone is called main_template.pt and it is provided by the Products.CMFPlone package.

This template provides the visual frame for Plone themes. The template is an old-style page template living in plone_skins/plone_templates.

Custom per view main template

Here is an example how to provide a customized main template for one view. In this example we have customized main template so that only the content area is visible.

First we register our template in configure.zcml:

<!-- Provide a custom main_template for our consumption -->
<browser:page
    name="widgets-demo-main-template"
    for="*"
    permission="zope.Public"
    template="barebone-main-template.pt"
    />

We refer it in our page template instead of here/main_template:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
      xmlns:tal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/tal"
      xmlns:metal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/metal"
      xmlns:i18n="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/i18n"
      metal:use-macro="here/@@widgets-demo-main-template/macros/master"
      i18n:domain="plone.app.widgets"
      lang="en"
      >

barebone-main-template.pt is an edited copy of portal_skins/sunburst_templates/main_template.pt:

<metal:page define-macro="master">
<tal:doctype tal:replace="structure string:&lt;!DOCTYPE html&gt;" />

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
    tal:define="portal_state context/@@plone_portal_state;
        context_state context/@@plone_context_state;
        plone_view context/@@plone;
        lang portal_state/language;
        view nocall:view | nocall: plone_view;
        dummy python: plone_view.mark_view(view);
        portal_url portal_state/portal_url;
        checkPermission nocall: context/portal_membership/checkPermission;
        site_properties context/portal_properties/site_properties;
        ajax_load request/ajax_load | nothing;
        ajax_include_head request/ajax_include_head | nothing;
        dummy python:request.RESPONSE.setHeader('X-UA-Compatible', 'IE=edge,chrome=1');"
    tal:attributes="lang lang;">

<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

    <metal:baseslot define-slot="base">
        <base tal:attributes="href plone_view/renderBase" /><!--[if lt IE 7]></base><![endif]-->
    </metal:baseslot>

    <tal:notajax tal:condition="python:not ajax_load or ajax_include_head">
        <div tal:replace="structure provider:plone.htmlhead" />
        <link tal:replace="structure provider:plone.htmlhead.links" />

        <tal:comment replace="nothing">
            Various slots where you can insert elements in the header from a template.
        </tal:comment>
        <metal:topslot define-slot="top_slot" />
        <metal:headslot define-slot="head_slot" />
        <metal:styleslot define-slot="style_slot" />
        <metal:javascriptslot define-slot="javascript_head_slot" />

        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=0.6666, maximum-scale=1.0, minimum-scale=0.6666" />
        <meta name="generator" content="Plone - http://plone.org" />
    </tal:notajax>
</head>

<body tal:define="isRTL portal_state/is_rtl;
                  sl python:plone_view.have_portlets('plone.leftcolumn', view);
                  sr python:plone_view.have_portlets('plone.rightcolumn', view);
                  body_class python:plone_view.bodyClass(template, view);
                  classes python:context.restrictedTraverse('@@sunburstview').getColumnsClasses(view)"
    tal:attributes="class body_class;
                    dir python:isRTL and 'rtl' or 'ltr'">

<div id="visual-portal-wrapper">

    <div id="portal-columns" class="row">

        <div id="portal-column-content" class="cell" tal:attributes="class classes/content">

            <div id="viewlet-above-content" tal:content="structure provider:plone.abovecontent" tal:condition="not:ajax_load" />

            <metal:block define-slot="content">
                <div metal:define-macro="content"
                    tal:define="show_border context/@@plone/showEditableBorder; show_border python:show_border and not ajax_load"
                    tal:attributes="class python:show_border and 'documentEditable' or ''">

                    <div metal:use-macro="context/global_statusmessage/macros/portal_message">
                     Status message
                    </div>

                    <metal:slot define-slot="body">
                        <div id="content">

                            <metal:header define-slot="header" tal:content="nothing">
                            Visual Header
                            </metal:header>

                            <metal:bodytext define-slot="main">

                             <div id="viewlet-above-content-title" tal:content="structure provider:plone.abovecontenttitle" tal:condition="not:ajax_load" />
                              <metal:title define-slot="content-title">
                                 <metal:comment tal:content="nothing">
                                     If you write a custom title always use
                                     <h1 class="documentFirstHeading"></h1> for it
                                 </metal:comment>
                                 <h1 metal:use-macro="context/kss_generic_macros/macros/generic_title_view">
                                     Generic KSS Title. Is rendered with class="documentFirstHeading".
                                 </h1>
                             </metal:title>

                             <div id="viewlet-below-content-title" tal:content="structure provider:plone.belowcontenttitle" tal:condition="not:ajax_load" />

                             <metal:description define-slot="content-description">
                                 <metal:comment tal:content="nothing">
                                     If you write a custom description always use
                                     <div class="documentDescription"></div> for it
                                 </metal:comment>
                                 <div metal:use-macro="context/kss_generic_macros/macros/generic_description_view">
                                     Generic KSS Description. Is rendered with class="documentDescription".
                                 </div>
                             </metal:description>

                             <div id="viewlet-above-content-body" tal:content="structure provider:plone.abovecontentbody" tal:condition="not:ajax_load" />

                             <div id="content-core">
                                 <metal:text define-slot="content-core" tal:content="nothing">
                                     Page body text
                                 </metal:text>
                             </div>

                             <div id="viewlet-below-content-body" tal:content="structure provider:plone.belowcontentbody" tal:condition="not:ajax_load" />

                            </metal:bodytext>
                        </div>
                    </metal:slot>

                    <metal:sub define-slot="sub" tal:content="nothing">
                       This slot is here for backwards compatibility only.
                       Don't use it in your custom templates.
                    </metal:sub>
                </div>
            </metal:block>

        </div>
    </div>

</div>
</body>
</html>

</metal:page>

Plone template element map

Plone 4 ships with the Sunburst theme. Its viewlets and viewlets managers are described here.

Note

Plone 3 viewlets differ from Plone 4 viewlets.

Zope Page Templates

Zope Page Templates, or ZPT for short, is an XML-based templating language, consisting of the Template Attribute Language (TAL), TAL Expression Syntax (TALES), and Macro Expansion TAL (METAL).

It operates using two XML namespaces (tal: and metal:) that can occur either on attributes of elements in another namespace (e.g. you will often have TAL attributes on HTML elements) or on elements (in which case the element itself will be ignored, but all its attributes will be recognized as TAL or METAL statements).

A statement in the tal: namespace will modify the element on which it occurs and/or its child elements.

A statement in the metal: namespace defines how a template interacts with other templates (defining or using macros and slots to be filled by macros).

The value of an attribute in the tal: namespace is an expression. The syntax of this expression is defined by the TALES standard.

TAL

TAL is the Template Attribute Language used in Plone.

Escaped and unescaped content

By default, all TAL output is escaped for security reasons:

view.text = "<b>Test</b>"
<div tal:content="view/text" />

Will output escaped HTML source code:

&lt;b&gt;Testlt;/b&gt;

Unescaped content can be output using the TALES structure keyword in the expression for the tal:replace and tal:content statements:

<div tal:replace="structure view/text" />

Will output unescaped HTML source code:

<b>Test</b>

METAL

The METAL (Macro Expansion TAL) standard provides macros and slots to the template language.

Using METAL macros is no longer recommended, since they couple programming logic too tightly with the template language. You should use views instead.

Read more about them in the TAL Guide.

TALES expressions

The value of TAL statements are defined by TALES expressions. A TALES expression starts with the expression type. If no type is specified, the default is assumed. Three types are standard:

  • path: expressions (default),
  • python: expressions,
  • string: expressions.

They are generally useful, and not limited to use in Page Templates. For example, they are widely used in various other parts of Plone:

  • CSS and Javascript registries, to decide whether to include a particular file;
  • Action conditions, to decide whether to show or hide action link;
  • Workflow security guards, to decide whether to allow a workflow state transition
  • etc.

Read more about expressions in TAL Guide.

See the Expressions chapter for more information.

Omitting tags

Sometimes you need to create XML control structures which should not end up to the output page.

You can use tal:omit-tag="":

<div tal:omit-tag="">
      Only the content of the tag is rendered, not the DIV tag itself.
</div>

Overriding templates for existing Plone views

  1. New style templates can be overridden by overriding the view using the template.
  2. Old stype templates can be overridden by register a new skins layer in plone_skins.

Old style page template

  • Create a new layer in portal_skins
  • Templates are resolved by their name, and a property on the portal_skins tool defines the order in which skin layers are searched for the name (see the Properties tab on portal_skins).
  • You can reorder layers for the active theme so that your layer takes priority.

Portlet slots

By default, Plone main_template has slots for left and right portlets. If you have a view where you don't explicitly want to render portlets you can do:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
        xmlns:tal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/tal"
        xmlns:metal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/metal"
        xmlns:i18n="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/i18n"
        lang="en"
        metal:use-macro="here/main_template/macros/master"
        i18n:domain="plone">

        <head>
            <metal:block fill-slot="column_one_slot" />
            <metal:block fill-slot="column_two_slot" />
        </head>

This blanks out the column_one_slot and column_two_slot slots.

Head slots

You can easily include per-template CSS and JavaScript in the <head> element using extra slots defined in Plone's main_template.pt.

Note that these media files do not participate in portal_css or portal_javascript resource compression.

Extra slots are:

<tal:comment replace="nothing"> A slot where you can insert elements in the header from a template </tal:comment>
<metal:headslot define-slot="head_slot" />

<tal:comment replace="nothing"> A slot where you can insert CSS in the header from a template </tal:comment>
<metal:styleslot define-slot="style_slot" />

<tal:comment replace="nothing"> This is deprecated, please use style_slot instead. </tal:comment>
<metal:cssslot define-slot="css_slot" />

<tal:comment replace="nothing"> A slot where you can insert javascript in the header from a template </tal:comment>
<metal:javascriptslot define-slot="javascript_head_slot" />

Example use:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
      lang="en"
      metal:use-macro="here/main_template/macros/master"
      i18n:domain="sits">

      <metal:slot fill-slot="css_slot">
          <style media="all" type="text/css">

            .schema-browser {
                    border-collapse: collapse;
            }

            .schema-browser td,
            .schema-browser th {
                    vertical-align: top;
                    border: 1px solid #aaa;
                    padding: 0.5em;
                    text-align: left;
            }

            .default {
                    color: green;
            }

            .mandatory {
                    color: red;
            }
          </style>
      </metal:slot>

<body>
    <metal:main fill-slot="main">
        <p>
            Protocols marked with question marks can be required or not
            depending of the current state of the patient.  For example,
            priodisability field depends on other set fields of the
            patient.
        </p>
    ...

Edit frame

By default, Plone draws a green edit frame around the content if you can edit it. You might want to disable this behavior for particular views.

Hiding the edit frame

If you'd like to hide the (green) editing frame, place the following code in your Zope 2-style page template:

<metal:block fill-slot="top_slot"
           tal:define="dummy python:request.set('disable_border',1)" />

Examples of this usage:

Special style on individual pages

To override page layout partially for individual pages you can use marker interfaces to register special overriding viewlets.

More information:

URL quoting inside TAL templates

You need to escape TAL attribute URLs if they contain special characters like plus (+) in query parameters. Otherwise browsers will mangle links, leading to incorrect parameter passing.

Zope 2 provides url_quote() function which you can access

<td id="cal#"
      tal:define="std modules/Products.PythonScripts.standard;
                  url_quote nocall: std/url_quote;

Then you can use this function in your TAL code

<a href="#" tal:define="start_esc python:url_quote(start)"
   tal:attributes="href string: ${url}/day?currentDate=${start_esc}&xmy=${xmy}&xsub=${xsub}">

If you need to also quote spaces, use url_quote_plus rather than url_quote.

Using macros

Here is an example how to use <metal:block define-macro="xxx"> and <metal:block use-macro="xxx"> in your view class template files.

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
      xmlns:tal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/tal"
      xmlns:metal="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/metal"
      xmlns:i18n="http://xml.zope.org/namespaces/i18n"
      tal:omit-tag=""
      >

    <metal:row define-macro="row">
         <!--
             A macro. You can call this using metal:use-macro
             and pass variables to using tal:define.
         -->
    </metal:row>

    <!-- Call macro in different parts of the main template using *widget* variable as a parameter -->

    <table class="datagridwidget-table-view" tal:attributes="data-extra view/extra">

        <tbody class="datagridwidget-body">
            <tal:row repeat="widget view/getNormalRows">
                <tr>
                    <metal:macro use-macro="template/macros/row" />
                </tr>
            </tal:row>

            <tal:row condition="view/getTTRow" define="widget view/getTTRow">
                <tr>
                    <metal:macro use-macro="template/macros/row" />
                </tr>
            </tal:row>


            <tal:row condition="view/getAARow" define="widget view/getAARow">
                <tr>
                    <metal:macro use-macro="template/macros/row" />
                </tr>
            </tal:row>

    </tbody>
</table>
</html>

More info

Edit this document

The source code of this file is hosted on GitHub. Everyone can update and fix errors in this document with few clicks - no downloads needed.

  1. Go to TAL page templates on GitHub.
  2. Press the Fork button. This will create your own personal copy of the documentation.
  3. Edit files using GitHub's text editor in your web browser
  4. Fill in the Commit message text box at the end of the page telling why you did the changes. Press the Propose file change button next to it when done.
  5. Then head to the Send a pull request page (you won't need to fill in any additional text). Just press Send pull request button.
  6. Your changes are now queued for review under project's Pull requests tab on Github.

For basic information about updating this manual and Sphinx format please see Writing and updating the manual guide.